Modelling of Dynamic and Static Adaptation Measures for Combined Sewer System Optimisation: Case-Study of Wilmersdorf Catchment, Berlin
The Wilmersdorf Catchment, part of the Berlin combined sewer system, faces severe problems regarding combined sewer overflows (CSO) and flooding which might worsen due to climate change and ongoing urbanisation. Rather than investing in costly adaptations, the goal of this study is to improve the utilisation of the existing storage capacity of the network in order to reduce CSO and flooding. The potential for optimisation was investigated by means of performance criteria (CSO volume, overflow peak and duration, flood volume and duration, number of flooded nodes) defined to assess the severity of CSO and flood events. This study takes a double interest in including dynamic and static adaptive measures to examine on one hand the potential improvement of the real-time control (RTC) strategy, and on the other hand the possible adaptation of existing structures in the network. To investigate these measures, a 1D-hydrodynamic model of the sewer network planned for 2020 was provided within the modelling package InfoWorks CS. The indicators were used to characterise the performance of the status-quo network as well as each implemented measure under a range of design storms. Three successful measures – the increase of a throttle pipe diameter and the elevation of two different overflow crests were identified to be effective for CSO reduction. On the other hand, adaptations of the RTC strategy did not lead to an improvement of the CSO aspect. The results of the simulations involving individual measures revealed that an optimisation of the network by making minor adjustments is possible. Indeed, CSO volume is almost halved under a 3-month rainfall after one overflow crest was elevated of 80 cm. Furthermore, a combination of the three best measures could reduce CSO volume by almost 60% for the same rainfall intensity. However, even though no significant worsening of flooding occurs, the main limitation of this type of measures is their inability to cope with flooding issues. Additional research should be conducted to complete the preliminary results that constitute this thesis and to fully determine the potential of the catchment, especially regarding the flooding aspect. In particular, decentralised measures that increase the pervious fraction of the surface could supplement this study.