Quantification of multiple benefits and cost of stormwater management
A total of 27 existing measures of stormwater management were studied across scales from building level (vegetated buildings, rainwater use) to city quarter level (infiltration, de-paving, artificial lakes and streams, decentralised treatment) and catchment level (centralised treatment, storage). For each measure, the same performance indicators were quantified based on literature, monitoring and simulation results regarding six potential benefits (water/energy saving potential, improvement of landscape quality, increase in biodiversity, reduced urban heat exposure, improvement of groundwater and surface water bodies), indirect resource use (life cycle assessment) and direct cost. Results show that each measure has its strengths and weaknesses. Thus, it is expected that different combinations of measures will lead to increased benefits for different locations/settings. The developed measurebenefit/cost-matrix may support the finding of such improved combinations and is currently tested in a research project regarding its potential for problem-oriented urban planning in Berlin, Germany.